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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Options for operative repair. (a) Fifth interspace posterolateral thoracotomy. (b) “Clamp-and-sew” with interposition graft rapidly sutured between proximal and distal clamps. (c) “Passive” bypass with blood from the arch perfused into the distal aorta through a shunt. (d) “Active” bypass with blood from the left atrium is circulated through a roller pump and perfused into the femoral artery through a retrograde catheter

Figure 2: Options for operative repair. (a) Fifth interspace posterolateral thoracotomy. (b) “Clamp-and-sew” with interposition graft rapidly sutured between proximal and distal clamps. (c) “Passive” bypass with blood from the arch perfused into the distal aorta through a shunt. (d) “Active” bypass with blood from the left atrium is circulated through a roller pump and perfused into the femoral artery through a retrograde catheter